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Epidemiology: Misunderstood? Misused?

The plethora of The-Only-Diet Book-You-Will-Ever-Need publications widely available in sales outlets, each with its own version of the “correct” nutritional philosophy, is testimony to the confusion suffered by the general public. The reason is elegantly described by Taubes:

…600,000 articles – along with several tens of thousands of diet books are the noise generated by a dysfunctional research establishment. Because the nutrition research community has failed to establish reliable, unambiguous knowledge about the environmental triggers of obesity and diabetes, it has opened the door to a diversity of opinions on the subject, of hypotheses about cause, cure and prevention, many of which cannot be refuted by the existing evidence.

This indictment is harsh, but deserved. Witness to the fact is the massive human feeding experiment foisted on the American public decades ago. It has caused untold suffering and needless deaths from the chronic inflammatory diseases it created. This nutritional debacle was chronicled by Garry Taubes a decade ago and updated more recently by Nina Teicholz.

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22

A Revisit To The Importance Of Dietary Animal Fat

The importance of dietary animal fat, told in a post in Ketopia, is well understood by nutritional biochemists. The refusal of the government-nutrition cabal to renounce its longstanding proscription against animal fat and, by association, red meat, has seriously compromised the health status of its trusting citizens. This untenable situation strengthens the meaning and potential of a remarkable book that has recently appeared on the literary scene.
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35

Metabolic Energy Control

The metabolic energy control system of the human organism is designed to be fueled by either glucose (carbohydrates) or fatty acids (lipids).1, pp. 160  In a healthy individual, the fuel of choice is largely determined by diet composition and intake schedule.  Because food intake is a batch process for most people, the availability of food in the digestive system cycles daily through full, empty, full, and so forth.  Thus, for a diet in which the macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) are consistent and in reasonable proportion, it is customary for the choice of fuel to switch back and forth seamlessly between glucose and fatty acids during the day in response to the alimentation cycles.
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3

Research: Increased sugar uptake promotes oncogenesis via EPAC/RAP1 and O-GlcNAc pathways

We’ve been providing a fair bit of coverage on cancer recently, and today will be no exception.

Unfortunately, right now I can offer little more than a pointer to the research article (published in The Journal of Clinical Investigation). I’m still working my way through it and may not have the time to return. So if you’re interested in sharing your thoughts on it, please add to the comments below!
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7

A Biochemical Outline of a Cure for Cancer

The term “aerobic glycolysis” is confusing to biochemists because it is inherently contradictory. Aerobic refers to reactions that require oxygen, and anaerobic refers to reactions that take place without the need for oxygen. Glycolysis is a biochemical pathway that does not need or use oxygen, therefore it is anaerobic. The definitions of aerobic and anaerobic shed no light on why glycolysis is described as aerobic.
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2

Ketopia’s New Design

In January of 2012 I started Ketopia with a stock theme, an image across the top that spoke of my journey, and the intention to push the Content First philosophy to the extreme. A couple years and a few hundred posts later (by multiple contributors!), we have a true community, a unique visual identity and a new design for the website.
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20

Red Meat and Miss Information

Red meat has long been an anathema to the nutrition establishment. Not being privy to the thinking of the originators of the so-called heart-healthy diet, we assumed it was because of the association of meat with its burden of saturated fat and cholesterol, two food components condemned as promoters of heart disease.
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11

Prevention of Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancers

Recent biochemical research into the metabolism of the essential fatty acids seems to have uncovered a major underlying cause of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. This biochemistry tells us that this cause is the modern American diet and that simple dietary change is capable of preventing these cancers.

Finding the cause of a disease and then removing that cause is called primary disease prevention; the disease never occurs and wellness is continuously maintained. In recent years, this definition has been changed to mean preventive medical care, namely early diagnosis and treatment. This new type of prevention utilizes regular medical checkups aimed at early diagnosis. Thus, when a disease reaches the point where it can be diagnosed, the disease is managed by regular doctor visits, prescription drugs, and surgery. This is not primary prevention.
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15

The Importance of Dietary Animal Fat

THE IMPORTANCE OF DIETARY ANIMAL FAT1

Animal fat was evolutionary man’s major source of energy. Ancient humans lived primarily on eggs, fish, animals, and other living creatures. Dietary sources of glucose were minimal. Human biochemistry is in agreement with these paleolithic findings.

In contrast, the modern human uses two classes of food to provide energy for life functions; carbohydrates yield glucose, and fats supply fatty acids. Despite the fact that glucose serves as the usual and ready source of energy for the body, long-term sustained energy depends on fatty acids. Fatty acids are a much more efficient fuel than glucose. They contain twice the energy per unit weight and they are stored more compactly. Under normal conditions, the body uses both fuels alternately depending on time from last meal.
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3

The New Epidemiology

Since shortly after World War II, when Ancel Keys and wife Margaret concluded that diets high in animal fat were the cause of cardiovascular diseases, an inestimable number of large, long-term studies have been conducted worldwide to look for proof of a causal relationship between the two. Despite a tremendous expenditure of time and money, all studies have failed to give an answer to the question of whether animal fats (primarily from red meat) and cholesterol cause cardiovascular disease. This failure is blamed on the inadequacies of epidemiology rather than the difficulties of proving a negative. When properly conducted, epidemiology has no inadequacies. Any failure of epidemiology is that of modern epidemiologists who equate association with cause.
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