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Metabolic Energy Control

The metabolic energy control system of the human organism is designed to be fueled by either glucose (carbohydrates) or fatty acids (lipids).1, pp. 160  In a healthy individual, the fuel of choice is largely determined by diet composition and intake schedule.  Because food intake is a batch process for most people, the availability of food in the digestive system cycles daily through full, empty, full, and so forth.  Thus, for a diet in which the macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) are consistent and in reasonable proportion, it is customary for the choice of fuel to switch back and forth seamlessly between glucose and fatty acids during the day in response to the alimentation cycles.
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Ketosis, Ketone Bodies, And Ketoacidosis – An Excerpt From Modern Nutritional Diseases, 2nd Edition

The cover or Modern Nutritional Diseases by Frank and Alice Ottoboni
Cover of the 1st Edition of Modern Nutritional Diseases by Frank and Alice Ottoboni
The following text is excerpted from Lipids (Chapter 8) of Modern Nutritional Diseases, 2nd Edition.

Ketone Bodies and Ketosis: Ketones are organic chemicals in which an interior carbon in a molecule forms a double bond with an oxygen molecule. Acetone, a familiar chemical, is the smallest ketone possible. It is composed of three carbons, with the double bond to oxygen on the middle carbon. Biological ketone bodies include acetone, larger ketones, and biochemicals that can become ketones. The most important of the ketone bodies are hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, both of which are formed from condensation of two acetyl CoA molecules. Acetone is formed from a nonenzymatic decarboxylation of acetoacetate.
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Ketosis: Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt

Perhaps nothing is more damaging to the new low-carber than the intentional spread of fear, uncertainty and doubt regarding the state of ketosis compared to the dangerous state of ketoacidosis. The former is a natural and healthy state of existence, the latter is a condition that threatens the life of type 1 diabetics and type 2 diabetics whose disease has progressed to the point where their pancreatic beta cells can no longer produce insulin (ketoacidosis is also a risk for alcoholics). So if you’re not an alcoholic, a type 1 diabetic or a late-stage type 2 diabetic, fear of ketosis is misdirected.  You should regard with suspicion anyone who confuses the two and warns you against a low-carb diet because they cannot tell the difference.
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